INSTRUMEN EKONOMI, COMMAND AND CONTROL, DAN INSTRUMEN LAINNYA: KAWAN ATAU LAWAN? SUATU TINJAUAN BERDASARKAN SMART REGULATION

Andri G. Wibisana

Abstract


ABSTRAKDalam konteks konteks penaatan hukum lingkungan, pendekatan Command and Control (CAC, Atur dan Awasi) merupakan pendekatan yang paling sering digunakan sekaligus dikritik. Tulisan ini bermaksud mempertanyakan ulang pandangan yang menempatkan CAC bukan hanya dalam posisi berlawanan dengan instrumen non-CAC, tetapi juga merupakan instrumen/pendekatan yang lebih inferior dibandingkan dengan instrumen non-CAC. Tulisan ini memperlihatkan bahwa selain instrumen CAC, dapat pula diterapkan instrumen ekonomi, instrumen atur diri sendiri (ADS, self-regulation), instrumen sukarela (voluntarism), serta instrumen pendidikan dan informasi. Berangkat dari teori Smart Regulation yang dikembangkan oleh Gunningham et al., tulisan ini berpandangan bahwa yang perlu dilakukan bukan lah upaya mencari alternatif instrumen terbaik, karena setiap instrumen memiliki kelebihan dan kekurangannya masing-masing. Sebaliknya, yang perlu dilakukan adalah menemukan kombinasi optimal di antara berbagai instrumen tersebut, dengan melibatkan keikutsertaan pemerinah, masyarakat, dan publik, dalam penciptaan penaatan lingkungan.

Kata kunci: CAC; instrumen ekonomi; smart regulation; penaatan lingkungan.

 

ABSTRACT

The Command and Control approach (CAC) is probably the most heavily used and criticized instrument of environmental compliance. This paper questions the view that places the CAC instrument not only in a dichotomy position with the non-CAC instruments but is also inferior compared to non-CAC instruments. This paper shows that in addition to the CAC instrument, economic instruments, self-regulation instruments (self-regulation), voluntary instruments, and educational and information instruments are also likely to be applicable. Departing from the Smart Regulation theory developed by Gunningham et al., this paper is of the view that, given advantages and disadvantages of each instrument, what needed is not an attempt to find the best instrument. Instead, what one needs is to find the optimal combination among these various instruments, by involving the government, community, and the public in the creation of environmental compliance.

Keywords: CAC; economic instruments; smart regulation; environmental compliance.


Keywords


CAC; instrumen ekonomi; smart regulation; penaatan lingkungan

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24970/bhl.v4i1.104

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